Chronic diseases are now a challenge for current society. The collapse of health care services, which cannot have individualized intervention models, or the great physical and mental impact of overload on caregivers – in 85 percent of the cases, an activity carried out by women – are some of the social problems that affect chronicity, which is increasingly becoming evident in the form of multimorbidity in various diseases.
Researcher José Miguel Morales explains the "ADAPP-Ti" instrument for self-care in patients with diabetes.
Researchers of the UMA of the multidisciplinary group "Chronicity, Dependency, Care and Healthcare Services", pertaining to the Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), have been working for more than a decade in a particular chronic disease: type 2 diabetes, a pathology that mainly derives from sedentary lifestyle and obesity, and that, according to José Miguel Morales, Professor of the Faculty of Health Science, it will multiply in the next 25 years.
The International Diabetes Federation asserts that in 2030 there will be around 550 million people with diabetes in the world and, at present, 14% of the Spanish population suffers from this disease. "Measures must be taken", says Morales, who adds that barriers to self-care among diabetic patients are one of the main obstacles they encounter, because changing their lifestyle is very complicated (physical exercise, diet, quit smoking…).
This is precisely why this research team of the UMA, with the aim of attaining individualized care, has designed an instrument, the EBADE questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. This tool enables us to identify the barriers to self-care among people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, which validation has been recently published in the journal Value in Health.
Moreover, this instrument is integrated in "ADAPP-Ti", a computer application that makes an individualized diagnosis for each patient, with a plan for lifestyle modifications that is maintained over time and supervised by health care professionals.
Nowadays, this care model is being tested in nursing visits, with a population of 410 people with diabetes, in around 30 primary health care centers of the province. This study received public competitive funding as a clinical trial, which first results will be obtained in mid-2020.